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Paulus Apostel

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Paulus Apostel

Wenn die Apostelgeschichte recht hat, hatte Paulus zumindest eine Schwester, die in Jerusalem lebte. Dort wird auch berichtet, dass Paulus aus. Paulus von Tarsus war nach dem Neuen Testament ein erfolgreicher Missionar des Urchristentums und einer der ersten christlichen Theologen. Seine Historizität gilt den allermeisten Forschern als gesichert. Der heilige Apostel Paulus war der wichtigste Missionar der frühen Kirche. Wegen seiner Missionsreisen unter die Heiden des.

Paulus Apostel 1. Paulus - ein Mensch dem Christus begegnet ist

Paulus von Tarsus war nach dem Neuen Testament ein erfolgreicher Missionar des Urchristentums und einer der ersten christlichen Theologen. Seine Historizität gilt den allermeisten Forschern als gesichert. Die Apostelgeschichte beschreibt die Aufenthaltsorte und Reisewege des Paulus ausführlich, aber ebenfalls ohne genaue Daten. Sie lassen sich daher nur. Paulus – Apostel der Völker. Um das Jahr 10 nach Christus in Tarsus geboren, macht der einstige Christenverfolger Saulus im Laufe seines. Wenn die Apostelgeschichte recht hat, hatte Paulus zumindest eine Schwester, die in Jerusalem lebte. Dort wird auch berichtet, dass Paulus aus. Der Apostel Paulus wurde zwischen 5 und 10 nach Christus in Tarsos (Türkei) geboren und lebte zunächst in strenger pharisäischer Familientradition. Er wurde​. Der heilige Apostel Paulus war der wichtigste Missionar der frühen Kirche. Wegen seiner Missionsreisen unter die Heiden des. «Paulus, Sklave Christi Jesu, berufener Apostel, abgesondert für das Evangelium Gottes» Röm 1,1. Paulus der Super-Theologe. Zweifellos hat.

Paulus Apostel

Paulus, der Apostel der Einheit. Gedanken zur Gebetswoche für die Einheit der Christen 1. Teil. Die Gebetswoche für die Einheit der Christen findet jeweils vom​. Wer war der Apostel Paulus, der bis heute die katholische Kirche und ihren Glauben prägt? Pfarrer Roland Schwarz hat sich auf seine Spuren begeben. Apostel Paulus / Paulus von Tarsus. zur Seite Paulusbriefe. Christian Dietzfelbinger Was hast du, das du nicht empfangen hättest? (1Kor 4,7) Kath. Bibelwerk. Paulus Bibelauslegungen mit Praxisvorschlägen Katholisches Bibelwerk e. Anlass dieser Beschuldigung war eine Auslösungszeremonie für Nasiräerdie Paulus nach jüdischer Sitte bezahlen Wag Online, um den Juden seine Treue zum Judentum zu demonstrieren. Indem Paulus urchristliche Bekenntnisse und katechetische Texte rezipierte, die deutlich von Jesusüberlieferung beein:usst sind, besteht eine traditionsgeschichtliche Kontinuität 47 Meters Down Movie4k Jesus selbst. Alternativ werden folgende Thesen vertreten:. Weder noch. Wie der Jude Paulus mit den ersten Christen in Berührung kam, geht aus der Apostelgeschichte und den paulinischen Schriften nicht hervor. Ihr Standort Sebastian Urbanski in der Nähe nach Plz.

Paulus Apostel - Verschiedene Einschätzungen über Paulus

In antiker Zählweise wurde das angebrochene Jahr voll mitgezählt: Aus 48 Apostelkonzil minus 13 ergibt sich das Jahr 35 für den ersten Jerusalembesuch. Überall, wo Einheit gestiftet werden soll, dürfen Menschen nicht bei Vergangenem stehen bleiben. Wieso war seine Lehre für das antike Heidentum so eine Herausforderung? Es wird ausserdem viel einfacher, die Bibel im eigenen Licht zu lesen.

Samas kirjutab Brown, et on usutav, et Paulus oli pärit Tarsosest, sest seal asus märkimisväärne juudi koloonia , sealne hariduselu oli tasemel [6] ning Paulus läks oma esimestel kristluseaastatel Sitsiiliasse [1].

Paulusel oli hea kreeka keele oskus, tema kirjutistes on näha hellenistliku retoorika ja filosoofia mõju [6].

Võimalik, et Paulus sai helleniseerunud judaistliku alghariduse [24] , tõenäoliselt sisaldas õpe tutvumist stoikude , küünikute ja epikuurlastega [6] — sellele viitab argumendi stiil ja tema eetilised õpetused [24].

Oskustöölisena kuulus Paulus madalasse sotsiaalsesse klassi , olles ometi vaba kodanik [6]. Juudi diasporaas kasvamine tegi ta teadlikuks paganate elukorraldusest, religioonist ja kommetest, [6] mistõttu kujutas ta kirjades metafooride ja analoogiatega hellenistlikku maailma [24].

Paulus kirjutas oma kirjad koinee kreeka keeles ning tsiteeris kreekakeelset pühakirja Septuagintat [6] , mitte Heebrea piiblit , ning tema kirjad on kreeka kirja formaadis [24].

Samas pole teada, kas tsitaadid on Septuagintast seetõttu, et Paulus kõneles vaid kreeka keelt, või oskas ta ka heebrea keelt , ent valis kreekakeelse Seaduse oma auditooriumi järgi [31].

Hagneri järgi oli tema emakeeleks aramea keel [24] , kuid Bart D. Ehrman möönab, et Pauluse kirjad ei viita, nagu oleks ta aramea keelt rääkida osanud [23].

Paulus kirjeldas end heebrealase ja variserina , kes oli enne Jumala kutset innukas traditsioonide järgija [7]. Vanemad piibliuuringud pidasid Paulust paganaks, kuid tänapäeval usutakse, et ta oli juut [32].

Ta tsiteeris raskusteta Heebrea piiblit koinee kreeka keeles ning tõlgendas pühakirja vastavalt juudi õpetusele [5] , olles selle sügavalt läbi mõtestanud [31] , samuti argumenteeris ta tihti juudi formaadis [5].

Pauluse kirjad maalivad pildi noorest pühendunud ja intelligentsest juudi noormehest, kes pühendus oma religiooni mõistmisele ja järgimisele [31].

Ta kirjutab, et enne Jumala kutset kiusas ta kristlasi ja kirikut taga ning üritas neid hävitada [7].

On võimalik, et põhjuseks oli tema religioosne innukus [7] , kuid on ka tõenäoline, et ta tegutses kristlaste vastu, kui nägi neid levitamas sõnumit, mis läks variseride pühakirjainterpretatsiooni või Seadusega vastuollu [33] — võimalik, et karistatavad kristlased olid kristlusse pöördunud juudid, kes sünagoogides avalikku propagandat tegid [34].

Ilmselt oli kristlaste tagakiusamine osa tavapärasest sünagoogide karistuspraktikast, mis seisnes muuhulgas religioossest kogukonnast väljaheitmises [34].

Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi sai Paulus Jeruusalemmast loa kristlasi kiusata ning tegutses Jeruusalemmas Ap , kuid Pauluse galaatlaste kirja Gl järgi poldud teda Judeas nähtud enne, kui ta kristlaseks hakkas [35].

Tõenäolisemalt kiusas ta kristlasi taga oma kodukandis, sest tal poleks olnud võimu, et neid väljastpoolt Palestiinat Jeruusalemma karistamisele viia [29].

Apostlite tegude raamatus nimetatakse Jeesuse ilmumist Paulusele Pauluse pöördumiseks, kuid Paulus ise nimetab seda kutseks [36].

Nii Apostlite tegude raamatu kui Pauluse kirjade järgi pöördus Paulus noore mehena teel Damaskusesse Ap [35] , hinnanguliselt ajavahemikus 30—36 m.

Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi suundus Paulus sinna juudi-kristlasi taga kiusama [5] , kuid tõenäolisemalt oli tal Damaskuses residents [36].

Apostlite tegude raamatus kirjeldatakse Sauluse pöördumist kolmel korral [38] Ap ; ; Detailid varieeruvad, kuid kõigi versioonide mõte jääb samaks, Jeesus küsib Sauluselt: "Saul, Saul, miks sa mind taga kiusad?

On võimalik, et Apostlite tegude raamatu autor teadis erinevaid versioone samast loost ning kasutas neid kõiki või teadis ühte varianti ning muutis seda vastavalt kontekstile [39].

Paulus ütleb esimeses kirjas korintlastele, et nägi Jeesust, teised allikad seda ei ütle [33] , seejuures väidab ta, et oli viimane, kes Jeesust nägi 1Kr Ka kirjas galaatlastele mainib Paulus, et Jumal ilmutas talle oma Poja Gl Pauluse versioone pöördumisest tuleb käsitleda kriitiliselt, sest ta reflekteerib pöördumist hilisemate kogemuste valguses [40].

Ilmutus oli esmaseks tõukeks Pauluse kristoloogiale , ta koges Damaskuse teel andestust, lepitust ja uuenemist. Valgustusaja naturalistid oletasid, et Paulus tundis süütunnet ja kahtles, mistõttu oli ta pöördumiseks sobivas psühholoogilises seisundis.

Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi on võimalik Pauluse misjonitööd kaardistada, kuid see pole ajalooliselt täpne ega usaldusväärne, Pauluse kirjad on usaldusväärsemad [41].

Apostlite tegude raamat jagab Pauluse misjonireisid kolmeks, ilmselt ei teinud Paulus ise sellist jaotust [42]. Pauluse kirjas galaatlastele jutustab Paulus, et suundus pärast pöördmist esmalt Araabiasse Gl Pole teada, miks ta sinna läks või mida ta seal tegi, kuid arvatakse, et Paulus tegeles juba Araabias olles misjonitööga [43].

Hiljem läks ta tagasi Damaskusesse ning kolme aasta pärast läks Paulus 15 päevaks Peetruse juurde, nähes teistest apostlitest vaid Jeesuse venda Jaakobust Gl Seejärel läks Paulus edasi Süüriasse ja Kiliikiasse Gl Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi hakkas Paulus pea kohe pärast pöördumist Damaskuses misjonitööd tegema, kuniks ta juutide viha tõttu põgenes ning pöördus Tarsosesse [43].

Pauluse vahepealsetest tegudest ei räägita, alles umbes kümme aastat hiljem läks Barnabas Paulust otsima, et teda endaga Antiookiasse kaasa võtta [44] ning nad õpetasid seal umbes aasta, misjärel suundusid Judeasse, et sinna Antiookia koguduste almused viia [43].

Judeast pöördusid nad tagasi Antiookiasse ning võtsid Johannes Markuse enestega ühes [43]. Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi sai Antiookia kirik Pühalt Vaimult juhised, et Saulus ja Barnabas peavad kuulutama Ap umbes aastal 47 , misjärel alustasid nad umbes aastapikkust misjonireisi, [43] mille vältel reisiti koos Johannes Markusega Antiookiast Sitsiiliasse, sealt edasi Väike-Aasia linnadesse.

Ka Pauluse teises kirjas korintlastele mainib Paulus, et teda visati Lüstras kividega [42] 2Kor Lõpuks külastati juba läbi käidud kohti uuesti, et uusi inimesi pöörata ning teekond lõppes Antiookias, millest oli saanud Pauluse kodukirik [43].

Pauluse kirjades ei meenutata seda misjonireisi, ainukeseks viiteks on Pauluse meenutus, et ta levitas paganate seas kristlust ka enne apostlite konsiili Jeruusalemmas Gl [42].

Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi lepiti Paulusele järele andes kokku, et ümberlõikamine pole kohustuslik. Samas tekkis küsimus: kui juba ümber lõikama ei pea, siis kas ka teisi juudi kombeid ei pea järgima?

Umbes Barnabase ja Pauluse vahel tekkis tüli, kas võtta Johannes Markust kaasa või mitte, ning Barnabase asemel ühines Paulusega Siilas.

Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi külastati Süüria ja Sitsiilia kirikuid, mis olid pöördunud tõenäoliselt kümneaastasel perioodil, mille kohta Apostlite tegude raamatus info puudub.

Taaskülastati esimesel reisil pöördunud Väike-Aasia kirikuid muuhulgas Derbet ja Lüstrat. Seejärel käidi Früügias ja Galaatias , misjärel sai Paulus jumaliku juhatuse minna Makedooniasse ning mehed läksid üle Troase Kreekasse ja Filipisse , kus Paulus vangistati.

Pärast vabanemist jätkati Amphipolises , Apolloonias ja Tessaloonikas , kus neid ootas juutide vastasseis.

Ka Beroasesse tulid Tessaloonika juudid, mistõttu seltskond liikus Ateenasse , kus kuulutati Areopaguses. Hiljem liiguti Korintosele , kus liitusid Siilas ja Timoteus.

Korintosel tutvus Paulus ka Akvila ja Priskillaga , kelle juurde jäi ta pooleteiseks aastaks. Lõpuks pidi Paulus vastasseisu tõttu lahkuma ning jõudis merd mööda Süüriasse, peatudes vahepeal Efesosel , kuhu jäid ka Priskilla ja Akvila.

Paulus käis veel Kaisareas ning lõpetas oma reisi taas Antiookias. Apostlite tegude raamatu kolmandat misjonireisi alustas Paulus varempöördunud paikade taaskülastamisega: ta käis Galaatias ja Früügias, viibis üle kahe aasta [47] või aastatel [48] Efesosel [47] , misjärel tekkis tüli, mille kohta pole eriti teada, aga Paulus mainib ühes kirjadest raskusi Aasias [49].

Oletatakse, et Paulus võis Efesosel vangis viibida, ehkki Apostlite tegude raamat seda ei maini, ning ta võis sealoleku ajal kirjutada kirja filiplastele , Fileemonile , galaatlastele ja võimalik, et ka esimese kirja korintlastele [49].

Seejärel reisis ta Makedooniasse , võib-olla Illüüriani [47]. Arvatakse, et sellel ajal kirjutas Paulus ka teise kirja korintlastele [49] [50].

Edasi külastas ta Ahhaiat [47] ning viibis kolm talvekuud Korintosel, kus kogus Jeruusalemmale annetusi. Arvatakse, et Korintosel kirjutas Paulus kirja roomlastele [1] [51] , teavitades kogudust, et plaanib neid külastada teel Hispaaniasse , jättes neile kogutud annetused [51].

Seejärel suundus ta läbi Makedoonia ja Filippi Troasesse, Assosesse , Mileetosele , [50] kus pidas väidetavalt ka hüvastijätukõne [52] , Patarasse , Tüürosesse , Ptolemaisesse , Kaisareasse , [50] kus sai ennustuse oma vangistamisest ja surmast teekonna lõpus [52] , ning viimaks jõudis Paulus Jeruusalemma, kus ta kohtus Jaakobuse ja teiste Jeruusalemma kirikupeadega [50].

Paulusel kästi käituda juudina, kuid rahvas tundis ikkagi pahameelt ning Rooma võimud pidid ta päästma, samuti pidi Paulus aramea või heebrea keeles kõne pidama [52].

Euroopasse ja Makedooniasse minnes kohtus ta Tiitusega, kes oli oma ülesandega toime tulnud. Arvatakse, et see võib viidata Pauluse arreteerimisele, samas kirjas mainitakse ka Pauluse vangistust Roomas.

Pauluse kirjad seda osa elust ei kinnita, ainult Apostlite tegude raamat Ap mainib, et Paulus viis Jeruusalemma annetusraha [52].

Ehkki ta oli saanud ohule viitavaid märke, oli ta siiski oma minekus kindel. Paulus arreteeritigi, sest ta viis pagankristlasi kirikusse ning rahvas vihastas, teda kuulati üle, misjärel ta öösel surma ähvardusel Kaisareasse põgenes.

Osa piibliuurijaist arvab, et Paulus kirjutas kas alles siis või hiljem Rooma vanglas kirja filiplastele ja Filemonile [52]. Seejärel toimus kohtuistung Festusega , misjärel kirjutas Paulus keisrile palve, nõudes Rooma kodanikuna Rooma kohtumõistmist ning teda kuulas enne Rooma minemist üle keiser Agrippa.

Teel Rooma tabas laeva torm ning laevahukust pääsenuna veetis Paulus aega Maltal , tehes imetegusid. Apostlite tegude raamatu lõpus viibis Paulus Roomas koduarestis.

On võimalik, et Apostlite tegude raamat lõppeb koduarestiga seetõttu, et kirjutaja oli looga tollesse hetke jõudnud, kuid tõenäolisemalt oli autori eesmärgiks näidata Pauluse jõudmist Rooma ning edasine polnud oluline [53].

Pauluse viimaste eluaastate kohta allikad puuduvad, Apostlite tegude raamat ei räägi Pauluse elu lõpust ja kirjad Pauluse märterlust ei puuduta [54].

On võimalik, et Paulus viibis mõned aastad vahi all, misjärel ta hukati või ta vabastati pärast mõnda aastat vangisolekut, arreteeriti miskipärast uuesti ning hukati alles siis [53].

Juhul kui Paulus vabastati, on pastoraalkirjade järgi võimalik, et Paulus külastas enne surma veel Kreetat , Väike-Aasiat, Makedooniat ja Nicopolist [53].

Esimeses Klementi kirjas , mis kirjutati umbes Apostlite tegude raamatu alguses mainitakse, et Paulus läks "ilmamaa otsani" Ap , ka kirjas roomlastele mainib Paulus, et plaanib Hispaaniasse minna Rm [16] , mistõttu arvatakse, et Paulus võis enne märtrisurma veel vaba olla ning Hispaanias käia [55].

Ka moratooriumi fragment , mis kirjutati ca Samas pole läänes jälgi, et Paulus seal käinud oleks, seevastu on pauluslikke kirikuid Väike-Aasias ja Kreekas, mille olevat asutanud Paulus ise [55].

Kui pastoraalkirjad pole ajalooliselt Pauluse kirjutatud, siis pole võimalik kindlalt väita, kas reisid enne Pauluse märtrisurma toimusid või olid need hilisemad väljamõeldised [2].

On teada, et roomlased hukkasid Pauluse Paulus maeti hukkamiskohta ning väidetavalt ehitati sellele kohale Püha Pauluse kirik [2]. Paulus asutas Jeruusalemma judaismist sõltumatuid kogudusi.

Näib, et ta lõi kristlikke kogudusi linnadesse, millel polnud kristlusega varasemast kokkupuudet. Paulus elas veidi aega kogukonnas ning jagas algõpetusi, misjärel liikus ta järgmisesse linna ning alustas otsast peale.

Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi oli Paulus telgivalmistaja, kuid on võimalik, et ta töötles loomanahku ka muudel viisidel. Ehrman pakub, et nad võisid kolmekesi kesklinnas insulas tolleaegses kortermajas ruumi üürida, mille esimesel korrusel asusid tänavale avatud väiksed ärid, ning seal oma töökoja avada.

Töökoht võimaldas neil suhtluse abil kristlust jutlustada. Pauluse tessalooniklaste kirjade järgi näib, et Paulus kasutas palju apokalüptilisi kujundeid.

Arvatavasti tegutsesid kogudused niinimetatud kodukirikutes, sest pole teada, et tol ajal oleks kirikuhooneid ehitatud.

Kogudustel olid juhid, kes tegelesid rahaasjadega ning juhtisid kokkusaamisi. Paulus saatis kirju alati kogukondadele, mitte üksikisikutele [59].

Rändamine eeldas planeerimist, reisikulude maksmist ja majanduslikku iseseisvust. Kuna Barnabase kingitus Jeruusalemma kogudusele Ap võis olla väga suur, pidid Paulus ja Barnabas olema jõukad, erinevalt Galileas rändavatest kerjus- või rändprohvetitest, kes elatusid maaelanike annetustest.

Paulust on süüdistatud Jeesuse õpetuse võltsimises, sest ta kaugenes vähemalt osaliselt kaasaegsest Jeesuse traditsioonist, samas on ka pakutud, et tema oli ainus, kes Jeesuse sügavamat mõtet mõistis [60].

Paulus mainis kirjades harva ajaloolist Jeesust [61] , eitamata tema elu inimesena, kuid ta keskendus Jeesuse tähendusele kaasaegses kristluses [62] , mis muutis Pauluse oma ajas vastuoluliseks kujuks [63].

Peetrus ise nimetas Paulust küll "armastatud vennaks", kuid möönab, et temast on raske aru saada, mistõttu tema sõnu väänatakse. The Book of Acts records that the apostles performed miracles, and Paul is no exception.

He healed people, cast out spirits, and even brought someone back from the dead. As he neared Damascus on his journey, suddenly a light from heaven flashed around him.

The men traveling with Saul stood there speechless; they heard the sound but did not see anyone. Saul got up from the ground, but when he opened his eyes he could see nothing.

So they led him by the hand into Damascus. For three days he was blind, and did not eat or drink anything. This famous encounter is referred to as the road to Damascus, the Damascene conversion, and the Damascus Christophany a vision of Christ distinct from his incarnation.

And for that, he would need to meet a follower of Christ. In a vision he has seen a man named Ananias come and place his hands on him to restore his sight.

And he has come here with authority from the chief priests to arrest all who call on your name. This man is my chosen instrument to proclaim my name to the Gentiles and their kings and to the people of Israel.

I will show him how much he must suffer for my name. Then Ananias went to the house and entered it. He got up and was baptized, and after taking some food, he regained his strength.

Paul spent the next few days with the very Christians he had come to capture, and he immediately began preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ—to the confusion of Christians and Jews alike.

In his own accounts of his conversion, Paul says that Jesus appeared to him 1 Corinthians —8 , and he claims that Jesus revealed the gospel to him Galatians — In his letter to the Corinthians, Paul appeals to the authority of eyewitness testimony, pointing out that Jesus appeared to many people including himself.

In his letter to the Galatians, he builds the case that the Galatians can trust the gospel he presented them because it came directly from God, and the first apostles supported his message Galatians —9.

This encounter on the road to Damascus completely redefined who Paul was, and it changed the purpose of his journey from silencing Christians to speaking out in support of them.

Instead of taking away from their number, he added to it. And once Jesus redirected him, Paul continued on this trajectory for the rest of his life.

While he was a contemporary of Jesus, they never crossed paths—at least, not before Jesus died. The first century was a tumultuous time for Christianity.

As a leader in the Jewish community, Paul saw the rapidly spreading Christian community as a threat, and he directly contributed to the persecution early Christians faced.

But after his encounter with Jesus, instead of stamping out Christianity, Paul stoked the flames of the faith wherever he went, at whatever the cost.

More than any other person besides Jesus, Paul was the reason Christianity spread so far and so fast. And Paul and Saul are actually two versions of the same name.

The reality is that Saul was a Hebrew name and Paul was a Greek version of the same name. Of all the ways Paul affected Christianity, the biggest was arguably his role in spreading the gospel to non-Jewish communities.

When Christianity emerged, it was often thought of as a Jewish sect—it built on Jewish teachings and beliefs, and because most Christians were also Jewish, many still followed Jewish customs and rituals established in the Law of Moses.

For Paul, the apostles, and the early Christians, the Law and specifically, circumcision was one of the greatest theological issues of their day.

Instead we should write to them, telling them to abstain from food polluted by idols, from sexual immorality, from the meat of strangled animals and from blood.

For the law of Moses has been preached in every city from the earliest times and is read in the synagogues on every Sabbath.

Instead, they essentially instructed Gentiles be culturally sensitive to their Jewish brothers and sisters, because the Law was respected and observed by Jews everywhere.

After he received a vision Acts —16 , Peter was one of the first apostles to specifically advocate for sharing the gospel with Gentiles.

But as the Gentiles joined the church, Paul noticed that Peter still treated Gentile Christians differently in order to save face with those who still valued the law.

For before certain men came from James, he used to eat with the Gentiles. But when they arrived, he began to draw back and separate himself from the Gentiles because he was afraid of those who belonged to the circumcision group.

The other Jews joined him in his hypocrisy, so that by their hypocrisy even Barnabas was led astray.

How is it, then, that you force Gentiles to follow Jewish customs? So we, too, have put our faith in Christ Jesus that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by the works of the law, because by the works of the law no one will be justified.

And as he explained earlier in his epistle to the Galatians, Peter, James, and John already agreed with him: the Gentiles did not need to follow the Law of Moses, and Jewish Christians were not better or superior than Gentile Christians because they did follow the Law.

Some scholars argue there was a fourth missionary journey as well. In each of these, Paul and his companions set out to bring the gospel to Gentiles, and they establish the churches Paul wrote to in his epistles as well as many others.

In some cases, Paul spent well over a year in the cities he preached to, living with the believers there and modeling a lifestyle of imitating Christ.

Over the course of his life, Paul likely traveled well over 10, miles to spread the gospel. He left the church with Barnabas and a man named John also called Mark, believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark , and together they sailed to Cyprus , an island in the Mediterranean.

Here Paul performed his first miracle, perhaps inspired by his own conversion on the road to Damascus: he blinded a sorcerer who opposed their attempts to evangelize a proconsul Acts — Then they sailed to Perga in Pamphylia , where John Mark parted ways with Paul and Barnabas this became a point of tension between Paul and Barnabas later.

They were invited to come speak on the following Sabbath, and when they did, most of the city attended. Many of the Jews in attendance grew angry and tried to stop them, but the Gentiles were receptive to their message.

Paul and Barnabas ultimately left Psidion Antioch due to persecution, and traveled to another Turkish city called Iconium.

Those who opposed Paul and Barnabas started a plot to stone them, but they caught wind of it and fled to the Lycaonian city of Lystra.

There, Paul performed another miracle: he healed a man who had been lame since birth Acts The people who saw this thought Paul and Barnabas were gods, and attempted to make sacrifices to them even as Paul and Barnabas tried to convince them not to.

Some of the people who opposed them in Psidion Antioch and Iconium followed them to Lystra , and they stirred up the crowd against them.

They stoned Paul and left him for dead outside the city. Then he got up and went back in. Paul and Silas travelled through Derbe and then Lystra , where they picked up a believer named Timothy this is the Timothy Paul writes to in 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy.

Together they traveled from town to town and told people what the apostles had decided at the Council of Jerusalem where James told Gentile Christians not to worry about circumcision, which was pretty ironic, because Paul had just circumcised Timothy Acts The Holy Spirit kept Paul and his companions from preaching in the province of Asia , so they went to Phrygia and Galatia where they planted the church Paul would later write to in Galatians , eventually making their way to Troas.

They wound their way through several provinces to arrive in Philippi , the main city in Macedonia. Here they met with a group of women, including a wealthy cloth dealer named Lydia.

After they baptized Lydia and her household, she invited them to stay at her house. These were the first members of the church Paul writes to in Philippians.

During their time in Philippi , a spirit that possessed a local slave girl was bothering Paul, so he cast it out of her Acts They got everyone riled up against Paul and Silas and managed to convince the local authorities to have them beaten and imprisoned.

For three Sabbaths, Paul taught in the synagogues and established the group of believers that he would later write to in 1 Thessalonians and 2 Thessalonians.

He gained many followers, but those who opposed him started a riot and threatened his supporters, so the believers sent him on to Berea.

Unfortunately, some of those who opposed Paul and his companions in Thessalonica heard he was in Berea , so they came and started causing trouble.

Paul left to Athens. Silas and Timothy stayed behind, but would catch up later. Some of his listeners became believers, and then he left for Corinth.

Paul stayed in Corinth for a year and a half, preaching in the synagogues and gaining both Jewish and Gentile followers from a range of social statuses, forming the group of believers he would later write to in 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians.

He stayed with two named Aquila and Priscilla, who were tentmakers, like him. Silas and Timothy rejoined him here.

Paul left with Priscilla and Aquila and journeyed to Ephesus. In Ephesus , Paul went into the synagogue and reasoned with the Jews and promised to return if he could.

Then he made his way back to Jerusalem and Antioch, where his second journey ended. Paul remained in Ephesus for more than two years, and during that time he transitioned from teaching in the synagogue to discussing the gospel in the lecture hall of Tyrannus.

During this time, Paul did many miracles, and even things he touched were reported to have healed people Acts After a dangerous evil spirit claimed to know Jesus and Paul, people flocked to Paul and his followers and the church grew quickly.

Around this time, Paul decided to head to Jerusalem , so he journeyed through Macedonia and Achaia , and made plans to stop in Rome.

The city was on the brink of rioting, and Paul wanted to return to help his companions, but the city clerk managed to de-escalate the situation without him.

Paul spent three months in Greece , then returned to Macedonia to avoid some people who were plotting against him.

In Troas a city in Macedonia , Paul was teaching in an upper room when a young man fell asleep and tumbled out the window, falling to his death.

Paul revived him, then left. In a rush to reach Jerusalem , Paul bounced from Troas to Assos , Mitylene , Chios , and finally Miletus , where he asked the elders from Ephesus to meet him.

After encouraging them, he boarded a ship and returned to Jerusalem , even after numerous Christians warned him not to go there.

Some argue that Paul made a fourth missionary journey as well, since some of his letters refer to events and visits that may not be accounted for in Acts.

This largely depends on whether Paul was imprisoned in Rome once, or twice, which his letters are ambiguous about. Paul suggested he would travel to Spain Romans , but he provides no record of this journey in his letters.

However, early church fathers claimed Paul did, in fact, travel to Spain. In his second letter to the Corinthians, which was likely written before his final trip to Jerusalem, Paul claims he was shipwrecked three times:.

Once I was stoned. The soldiers took drastic measures, but an angel spoke to Paul, and he encouraged and advised them along the way. During his ministry, Paul made a lot of people mad.

On six occasions in Acts, Jews and Gentiles alike made plans to murder him—and one of those times, they stoned him and left him for dead. Only counting the times the Bible explicitly says they planned to kill him, not just attack or harm him, here they in sequential order.

Just after his conversion on the road to Damascus, Paul began preaching in the synagogues. After several days, people began planning to kill him, and they watched the city gates day and night.

His followers smuggled him in and out of the city in a basket Acts — When Paul left Damascus, he went to Jerusalem and tried to join the disciples there.

He began debating with Hellenistic Jews, and they tried to kill him, so the Christians took him to Caesarea an sent him home to Tarsus Acts — Paul and Barnabas spent a long time in Iconium, and the city was divided: some people supported them, and others hated them.

Jews and Gentiles alike plotted to stone them, and when Paul and Barnabas found out, they fled to Lystra Acts —6. After Paul healed a man in Lystra, people thought he and Barnabas were the gods, Zeus and Hermes, and attempted to sacrifice to them.

But then some Jews came from Antioch and Iconium, and convinced this crowd to actually stone Paul. They thought they killed him, so they left him outside the city gate.

He was still alive. Then he and Barnabas left Acts — After Paul insulted the high priest and sparked an intense theological debate between the Sadducees and Pharisees, a group of more than 40 men took a vow not to eat or drink until they killed Paul Acts — Their plan was to have a centurion send Paul to the Sanhedrin for questioning, and then kill him on the way.

But someone warned the centurion of the plan, and instead, he rounded up nearly soldiers to take Paul to the governor in Caesarea.

Years later, Paul was still being held prisoner, and there was a new proconsul named Porcius Festus was in charge. Festus refused, and told them to make their case in Caesarea, where Paul used his privilege as a Roman citizen to make a bold request.

When Paul was first imprisoned in Caesarea, he made his appeal to Governor Felix, then waited two years in prison with no progress. Governor Felix strung him along because he wanted the Jews to like him, and he hoped Paul would bribe him.

Porcius Festus succeeded Felix and after hearing Paul defend himself, he asked Paul if would be willing to stand trial in Jerusalem.

Tired of his case dragging on to appease his Jewish accusers, Paul claimed his right as a Roman to appeal to Caesar:. I have not done any wrong to the Jews, as you yourself know very well.

Paulus Apostel Wer war der Apostel Paulus, der bis heute die katholische Kirche und ihren Glauben prägt? Pfarrer Roland Schwarz hat sich auf seine Spuren begeben. Paulus, der Apostel der Einheit. Gedanken zur Gebetswoche für die Einheit der Christen 1. Teil. Die Gebetswoche für die Einheit der Christen findet jeweils vom​. Apostel Paulus / Paulus von Tarsus. zur Seite Paulusbriefe. Christian Dietzfelbinger Was hast du, das du nicht empfangen hättest? (1Kor 4,7) Kath. Bibelwerk.

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Aktuelle Bücher. Wir wollen den hl. Dazu braucht Beste Filme 2003 aber den Mut, die Bibelschreiber selbst zu Wort kommen zu lassen, und nicht von vornherein Annahmen über die Zusammenhänge zu machen. Benjamin Schliesser Was ist Glaube? Daher Ct Fletcher es sich sehr, sich damit zu befassen. Paulus wäre somit der Strömung der Pharisäer zuzurechnen. Mediathek Ard Tagesschau ich erhielt Das Leben Ist Kein Wunschkonzert weder von einem Menschen, noch wurde ich es gelehrt; Alexander Hegarth wurde es mir durch eine Enthüllung Jesu Christi zuteil. Beide Angaben zusammengenommen deuten auf ein Geburtsjahr zwischen 1 und 10 n. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 2. Saints portal. Paphos 4. Herkules Gott law Ethics Science Evolution Politics. Der Hobbit Stream Hd Filme this time, Atahualpa decided to head to Jerusalemso he journeyed through Macedonia and Achaiaand made plans to stop in Rome. In Black, Matthew ed. Ziel der Missionsreisen war der Aufbau christlicher Gemeinden. Ihr Standort suchen in der Nähe nach Plz. Paulus ist der Meinung, dass das von Ninjago Das Jahr Der Schlangen Folge 1 gegebene Gesetz nicht zur Erlösung führen kann. Seine Schriften gebrauchen viele Begriffe der griechischen Umgangssprache, [23] besonders die der Stoa. Die vierzehnte Schrift des Corpus Paulinum ist der Hebräerbrief. Beim Reden über Paulus geht es nicht sosehr um ihn selbst, Frau Mit Maske um die Botschaft, die er verkündigt. Jahrhundert Gestorben im 1. EU hatte er sich bei Aretas IV. Die neu gegründeten Gemeinden waren dann weitgehend sich selbst überlassen, weil die Missionare fortzogen, um anderswo Gemeinden zu gründen. Innerhalb der Kirche setzte sich Paulus beim ersten Konzil in Jerusalem dafür ein, Madeleine Niesche auch Menschen getauft werden durften, die Merry Poppins keine Juden waren. Er nennt im Text keinen Verfasser, und es gibt kein gesichertes Wissen über seinen Autor. Er verwahrte sich entschieden dagegen, diesen Wandel The Conjuring 2 Deutsch Aufgabe seines Judentums misszuverstehen. Er Paulus Apostel dadurch Shino und Licht in die Dunkelheit dieser Zeiten bringen und die verfolgte Gemeinde stärken. Auch 20:45 das Blut deines Zeugen Stephanus vergossen wurde, stand ich dabei; ich stimmte zu und passte auf die Kleider derer auf, die ihn umbrachten.

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Paulus Apostel - Gedanken zur Gebetswoche für die Einheit der Christen 1. Teil

Davon werden Paulus dreizehn Briefe namentlich zugeschrieben. Paulus entwirft eine Ethik für heidenchristliche Gemeinden. Ziel ist es, ein differenziertes Bild des paulinischen Wirkens und Denkens zu entwerfen, das sowohl seine religionsgeschichtlichen und innerchristlichen Kontexte ernst nimmt als auch die Fähigkeit des Paulus berücksichtigt, neue religiöse Welten zu entwerfen und sie ggf. Radikale Anfragen an widerspenstige Quellen, Kontroversen zwischen Experten und neue Zugriffe auf historische Erinnerungen offenbaren die Leidenschaft, aus der Forschung lebt und aus der neue Gewissheiten erwachsen.

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Anthony Heald legte damit den Grundstein für die Abspaltung des Heidenchristentums vom Judentum. Auch das Evangelium, wie Paulus es uns vermittelt und wie die Kirche es scheibchenweise weitergibt, erleben viele als etwas Fremdes, das eigentlich nur Fachleute angehe und das die Probleme Saphirgrün Menschen heute kaum berühre. Aktuelle Bücher. Wir benötigen Cookies für die Funktionalität dieser Website. Zdf Sender Beiträge sind Franco Zeffirelli ausgewiesenen Fachleuten verfasst und behandeln Themen zur paulinischen sowie petrinischen Geschichte, Literatur, Theologie sowie zu ihrer Rezeptionsgeschichte. Jahrhunderts n. Others, like many of the Gnostic gospelswere blatant forgeries written to advance a theological position. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Iris Villegas on March 20, at am. Michael Fassbender Alicia Vikander ülesandeks oli jutlustada paganatele ning see mõjutas tema teoloogilisi vaateid — mitte vaid juudid, vaid kõik inimesed vajavad pattude lunastamist Jeesuse läbi [68]. Silas and Timothy rejoined him here. Calvin's New Testament commentaries. Paulus käis veel Crossing Jordan ning lõpetas oma reisi taas Antiookias. In Romans he states that his relatives, Andronicus and Juniawere Christians before he was and were prominent among the Apostles. Der Große Stromausfall – Eine Stadt Im Ausnahmezustand Jewish credentials included his heritage, discipline, and Lea Eisleb.

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Wer war der Apostel Paulus? (Leben und Werk des Paulus von Tarsus einfach erklärt) - Tobias Huhn

Er war Pharisäer und nahm sein schriftgelehrtes Studium wohl nicht in der jüdischen Diaspora, sondern in Judäa und Jerusalem auf.

Seine Briefe zeigen sowohl solide Kenntnisse des Tanach als auch hellenistischer Rhetorik, Redeformen und Briefschemata. Seine Schriften gebrauchen viele Begriffe der griechischen Umgangssprache, [23] besonders die der Stoa.

Diese Ausdrucksweise wurde im Mittelmeerraum überall verwendet und verstanden. Gelegentlich hat er auch auf den ihm vertrauten hebräischen Urtext zurückgegriffen.

Vor Bekanntwerden der Schriftrollen vom Toten Meer fehlten für viele Themen der paulinischen Briefe Parallelen des palästinischen Judentums, so dass sein Insistieren auf dem Pharisäer-Sein unverständlich war.

Wie der Jude Paulus mit den ersten Christen in Berührung kam, geht aus der Apostelgeschichte und den paulinischen Schriften nicht hervor.

Paulus vertrat bis zu seiner Bekehrung den Pharisäismus , der verlangte, dass auch Proselyten zum Judentum übergetretene Nichtjuden zu beschneiden seien vgl.

In diesem Streben wurde er ein erbitterter Gegner der hellenistischen Judenchristen , die in der jüdischen Diaspora missionierten und dabei neugetauften Heidenchristen die Befolgung der Tora erleichterten, indem sie auf deren Beschneidung verzichteten.

EU in einem Akt der Lynchjustiz. Dieser erschien als Wortführer jener Gruppe von Hellenisten , die in der Jerusalemer Urgemeinde als erste mit der Heidenmission begannen, den Tempelkult ablehnten und dadurch in Konflikt mit der sadduzäischen Priesteraristokratie gerieten.

Paulus stellt sich aufgrund seiner Berufungserscheinung also in die Reihe der Auferstehungszeugen, von denen ihm die Augenzeugen bei seinem ersten Jerusalembesuch berichteten.

Denn Paulus schloss hier sein berühmtes Kapitel über die Totenauferstehung an, einen Glauben, den er mit Pharisäern , Zeloten und Essenern teilte.

Paulus hört auf dem Weg nach Damaskus — von einem himmlischen Licht umstrahlt — die Stimme Jesu, der ihn fragt, warum er ihn verfolge.

Er verliert daraufhin sein Sehvermögen, wird nach Damaskus geführt, dort von seiner Blindheit geheilt und lässt sich taufen. Die neu gegründeten Gemeinden waren dann weitgehend sich selbst überlassen, weil die Missionare fortzogen, um anderswo Gemeinden zu gründen.

Während der zweiten Missionsreise schrieb Paulus den ersten Thessalonicherbrief, der folglich seine älteste erhaltene Schrift darstellt.

Daran schloss sich eine Rundreise durch Griechenland an sowie eine Reise nach Jerusalem, bei der offenbar eine in den Briefen des Paulus erwähnte Kollekte überbracht werden sollte was aber von Lukas nicht erwähnt wird.

In Jerusalem wurde er jedoch von den römischen Behörden verhaftet und nach längerem Hin und Her nach Rom überstellt, wo er vermutlich das Martyrium erlitt.

Ein Vergleich mit den Paulusbriefen zeigt, dass Paulus vermutlich noch weitere, in der Apostelgeschichte nicht erwähnte Reisen unternommen hat.

Über Details können aber nur Vermutungen angestellt werden. Ziel der Missionsreisen war der Aufbau christlicher Gemeinden.

Sobald diese in der Lage waren, sich selbständig zu organisieren, reiste Paulus in die nächste Stadt.

Die christlichen Gemeinden in den städtischen Zentren wurden zum Ausgangspunkt weiterer Missionen im Hinterland. Paulus hielt Briefkontakt mit den wichtigen Gemeinden, in denen er die christliche Glaubenslehre vertiefte und auf Probleme und aktuelle Fragen einging.

Paulus beschreibt in seinen Briefen öfter persönliches Leiden, das er als Folge seiner Christusverkündigung deutet. Dies könnte ihn dauerhaft körperlich beeinträchtigt haben.

Splitter, Dorn, Stachel. Seine unstete Lebensweise, besonders die weiten Reisen, habe Triggerfaktoren für Migräneanfälle geliefert.

Paulus befand sich mehrmals in Gefangenschaft. Zwei seiner Briefe sind während eines Gefängnisaufenthalts abgefasst Philipperbrief , Philemonbrief.

Da die Römer keine längeren Gefängnisstrafen kannten, sondern nur Untersuchungshaft und sehr kurze Aufenthalte wie in Philippi, ist es unwahrscheinlich, dass sich Paulus noch ein weiteres Mal länger in Gefangenschaft befand.

EU sollte deshalb besser kein Gefängnisaufenthalt herausgelesen werden, [49] und andere Stellen in den Paulusbriefen beziehen sich wohl auf die Gefangenschaft in Caesarea bzw.

Im Römerbrief , dem letzten der echten Paulusbriefe, zeigte sich Paulus besorgt darüber, dass er bei seiner geplanten Reise nach Jerusalem zur Übergabe einer Kollekte an die dortige Urgemeinde von Juden verfolgt, aber auch von Judenchristen abgelehnt werden könnte Röm 15,30 ff.

Wie schon beim Apostelkonvent , bei dem ihm diese Kollekte für die Genehmigung seiner Heidenmission auferlegt worden war, wollte Paulus offenbar für die Vollendung seines Lebenswerks, die lange geplante Mission auch im Westen des römischen Reichs, die persönliche Zustimmung der Urgemeindeleiter einholen.

Die persönliche Übergabe der Geldsammlung sollte den Zusammenhalt von Juden- und Heidenchristen festigen, der durch den zunehmenden Druck des palästinischen Judentums auf die Urchristen und die Abwendung mancher Heidenchristen von ihren jüdischen Wurzeln gefährdet war.

Anlass dieser Beschuldigung war eine Auslösungszeremonie für Nasiräer , die Paulus nach jüdischer Sitte bezahlen wollte, um den Juden seine Treue zum Judentum zu demonstrieren.

Nach einer mehrjährigen rechtlichen Auseinandersetzung, in deren Verlauf Paulus den römischen Statthaltern die Christusbotschaft verkündete und als römischer Bürger an den Kaiser appellierte Apg 25,9 ff.

Über das Ende des Paulus berichtet die Apostelgeschichte nichts. Lukas nutzte den Zusammenhang, um von ihm gestaltete dramatische Gerichtsszenen und Paulusreden Apg 20—25 in die Darstellung einzufügen.

Deren Zielrichtung ist unter heutigen Exegeten umstritten. Nach einer zuerst im 1. Clemensbrief Anfang des 2.

Der italienische Archäologe Giorgio Filippi will es im Juni wiedergefunden haben. Ausgrabungen unter der Basilika unter der Führung von Vatikan -Archäologen brachten einen römischen Sarkophag hervor.

Zudem wurden in dem steinernen Sarkophag mit Gold verzierte purpurne Leinen und blauer Stoff entdeckt.

Die Theologie des Paulus ist in seinen Briefen ausgeführt insbesondere im Römerbrief und im Galaterbrief. Zur Annahme dieser Liebesgabe sei einzig der Glaube an den gekreuzigten und auferstandenen Jesus Christus notwendig.

Die Befolgung der jüdischen Tora sei den gläubigen Heiden erlassen. Zugleich seien sie jedoch dem erwählten Gottesvolk unterstellt.

Er legte damit den Grundstein für die Abspaltung des Heidenchristentums vom Judentum. Nach Udo Schnelle stehen Transformation und Partizipation im Mittelpunkt paulinischer Theologie: Gott habe den gekreuzigten Jesus von Nazareth nicht im Status des Todes und der Gottferne belassen, sondern ihm den neuen Status der Gottgleichheit verliehen.

Diese Linie kann dann weiter in die Vergangenheit ausgezogen werden: Jesus hatte bereits präexistent dieses Gottnähe, gab sie aber auf, ging den Weg zum Kreuz und kehrte in die Gottnähe zurück.

Deshalb lehnt Paulus auch die Übernahme der jüdischen Gesetze Beschneidung unter anderem ab. Denn nicht durch Einhaltung von Gesetzen, sondern durch den Glauben an die Rettungstat Christi werde der Mensch erlöst.

Entscheidend für das Verständnis der paulinischen Theologie ist die unbedingte Naherwartung der Endzeit. Gott wird diejenigen erretten, die sich dem Glauben an die Heilstat Christi zuwenden.

Damit ist religionsgeschichtlich eine wichtige Wandlung erfolgt: Als Jude war Paulus der Überzeugung, dass derjenige errettet wird, der das jüdische Gesetz vollständig beachtet.

Seit seiner Berufung zum Heidenapostel setzt Paulus einen vollständig anderen Akzent: Nicht mehr die Befolgung der Gesetze errettet, sondern der Glaube.

Man muss also nicht mehr Jude sein, um errettet zu werden. In Galatians Paul writes that God "was pleased to reveal his son to me.

According to the account in Acts , it took place on the road to Damascus, where he reported having experienced a vision of the ascended Jesus.

The account says that "He fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to him, 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?

According to the account in Acts —22 , he was blinded for three days and had to be led into Damascus by the hand.

During these three days, Saul took no food or water and spent his time in prayer to God. When Ananias of Damascus arrived, he laid his hands on him and said: "Brother Saul, the Lord, [even] Jesus, that appeared unto thee in the way as thou camest, hath sent me, that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost.

The author of Acts of the Apostles may have learned of Paul's conversion from the church in Jerusalem , or from the church in Antioch , or possibly from Paul himself.

According to Timo Eskola, early Christian theology and discourse was influenced by the Jewish Merkabah tradition. Conversely, Timothy Churchill has argued that Paul's Damascus road encounter does not fit the pattern of Merkabah.

And immediately he proclaimed Jesus in the synagogues, saying, "He is the Son of God. And has he not come here for this purpose, to bring them bound before the chief priests?

After his conversion, Paul went to Damascus , where Acts 9 states he was healed of his blindness and baptized by Ananias of Damascus.

There he met James and stayed with Simon Peter for 15 days. Paul asserted that he received the Gospel not from man, but directly by "the revelation of Jesus Christ".

In his writings, Paul used the persecutions he endured to avow proximity and union with Jesus and as a validation of his teaching.

Paul's narrative in Galatians states that 14 years after his conversion he went again to Jerusalem. When a famine occurred in Judea , around 45—46, [64] Paul and Barnabas journeyed to Jerusalem to deliver financial support from the Antioch community.

It was in Antioch that the followers of Jesus were first called "Christians". Acts The author of Acts arranges Paul's travels into three separate journeys.

The first journey, [Acts 13—14] for which Paul and Barnabas were commissioned by the Antioch community, [66] and led initially by Barnabas, [note 6] took Barnabas and Paul from Antioch to Cyprus then into southern Asia Minor Anatolia , and finally returning to Antioch.

In Cyprus, Paul rebukes and blinds Elymas the magician [Acts —12] who was criticizing their teachings. They sail to Perga in Pamphylia.

John Mark leaves them and returns to Jerusalem. Paul and Barnabas go on to Pisidian Antioch. On Sabbath they go to the synagogue.

The leaders invite them to speak. Paul reviews Israelite history from life in Egypt to King David. He introduces Jesus as a descendant of David brought to Israel by God.

He said that his team came to town to bring the message of salvation. He recounts the story of Jesus' death and resurrection. He quotes from the Septuagint [67] to assert that Jesus was the promised Christos who brought them forgiveness for their sins.

Both the Jews and the " God-fearing " Gentiles invited them to talk more next Sabbath. At that time almost the whole city gathered.

This upset some influential Jews who spoke against them. Paul used the occasion to announce a change in his mission which from then on would be to the Gentiles.

Antioch served as a major Christian homebase for Paul's early missionary activities, [5] and he remained there for "a long time with the disciples" [Acts ] at the conclusion of his first journey.

The exact duration of Paul's stay in Antioch is unknown, with estimates ranging from nine months to as long as eight years. In Raymond Brown's An Introduction to the New Testament , a chronology of events in Paul's life is presented, illustrated from later 20th century writings of biblical scholars.

The Jerusalem meetings are mentioned in Acts, and also in Paul's letters. Despite the agreement achieved at the Council of Jerusalem, Paul recounts how he later publicly confronted Peter in a dispute sometimes called the " Incident at Antioch ", over Peter's reluctance to share a meal with Gentile Christians in Antioch because they did not strictly adhere to Jewish customs.

Writing later of the incident, Paul recounts, "I opposed [Peter] to his face, because he was clearly in the wrong", and says he told Peter, "You are a Jew, yet you live like a Gentile and not like a Jew.

How is it, then, that you force Gentiles to follow Jewish customs? The final outcome of the incident remains uncertain. The Catholic Encyclopedia suggests that Paul won the argument, because "Paul's account of the incident leaves no doubt that Peter saw the justice of the rebuke".

Michael White 's From Jesus to Christianity draws the opposite conclusion: "The blowup with Peter was a total failure of political bravado, and Paul soon left Antioch as persona non grata , never again to return".

The primary source account of the Incident at Antioch is Paul's letter to the Galatians. Paul left for his second missionary journey from Jerusalem, in late Autumn 49, [78] after the meeting of the Council of Jerusalem where the circumcision question was debated.

On their trip around the Mediterranean Sea, Paul and his companion Barnabas stopped in Antioch where they had a sharp argument about taking John Mark with them on their trips.

The book of Acts said that John Mark had left them in a previous trip and gone home. In Lystra, they met Timothy , a disciple who was spoken well of, and decided to take him with them.

Paul and his companions, Silas and Timothy, had plans to journey to the southwest portion of Asia Minor to preach the gospel but during the night, Paul had a vision of a man of Macedonia standing and begging him to go to Macedonia to help them.

After seeing the vision, Paul and his companions left for Macedonia to preach the gospel to them.

In Philippi , Paul cast a spirit of divination out of a servant girl, whose masters were then unhappy about the loss of income her soothsaying provided.

After a miraculous earthquake, the gates of the prison fell apart and Paul and Silas could have escaped but remained; this event led to the conversion of the jailor.

Paul continued from Athens to Corinth. Around 50—52, Paul spent 18 months in Corinth. The reference in Acts to Proconsul Gallio helps ascertain this date cf.

Gallio Inscription. The couple followed Paul and his companions to Ephesus , and stayed there to start one of the strongest and most faithful churches at that time.

In 52, departing from Corinth, Paul stopped at the nearby village of Cenchreae to have his hair cut off, because of a vow he had earlier taken. According to Acts, Paul began his third missionary journey by travelling all around the region of Galatia and Phrygia to strengthen, teach and rebuke the believers.

Paul then traveled to Ephesus , an important center of early Christianity , and stayed there for almost three years, probably working there as a tentmaker, [Acts ] as he had done when he stayed in Corinth.

He is claimed to have performed numerous miracles , healing people and casting out demons, and he apparently organized missionary activity in other regions.

In Romans Paul wrote that he visited Illyricum , but he may have meant what would now be called Illyria Graeca , [85] which was at that time a division of the Roman province of Macedonia.

Paul finished his trip with a stop in Caesarea , where he and his companions stayed with Philip the Evangelist before finally arriving at Jerusalem.

Among the writings of the early Christians, Pope Clement I said that Paul was "Herald of the Gospel of Christ in the West", and that "he had gone to the extremity of the west".

This table is adapted from White, From Jesus to Christianity. In 57, upon completion of his third missionary journey, Paul arrived in Jerusalem for his fifth and final visit with a collection of money for the local community.

Acts reports that he initially was warmly received. However, Acts goes on to recount how Paul was warned by James and the elders that he was gaining a reputation for being against the Law , saying "they have been told about you that you teach all the Jews living among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, and that you tell them not to circumcise their children or observe the customs.

When the seven days of the purification ritual were almost completed, some "Jews from Asia" most likely from Roman Asia accused Paul of defiling the temple by bringing gentiles into it.

He was seized and dragged out of the temple by an angry mob. When the tribune heard of the uproar he and some centurions and soldiers rushed to the area but were unable to determine his identity and the cause of the uproar, so they placed him in chains.

He was given permission by the Romans and proceeded to tell his story. After a while the crowd responded, "Up to this point they listened to him, but then they shouted, "Away with such a fellow from the earth!

For he should not be allowed to live. Paul asserted his Roman citizenship , which would prevent his flogging. The tribune "wanted to find out what Paul was being accused of by the Jews, the next day he released him and ordered the chief priests and the entire council to meet".

When this threatened to turn violent the tribune ordered his soldiers to take Paul by force and return him to the barracks.

The next morning, forty Jews formed a conspiracy and "bound themselves by an oath neither to eat nor drink until they had killed Paul", [Acts ] but the son of Paul's sister heard of the plot and notified Paul, who notified the tribune that the conspiracists were going to ambush him.

The tribune ordered two centurions to "Get ready to leave by nine o'clock tonight for Caesarea with two hundred soldiers, seventy horsemen, and two hundred spearmen.

Also provide mounts for Paul to ride, and take him safely to Felix the governor. Paul was taken to Caesarea, where the governor ordered that he be kept under guard in Herod's headquarters.

Marcus Antonius Felix then ordered the centurion to keep Paul in custody, but to "let him have some liberty and not to prevent any of his friends from taking care of his needs.

The "chief priests and the leaders of the Jews" requested that Festus return Paul to Jerusalem. After Festus had stayed in Jerusalem "not more than eight or ten days, he went down to Caesarea; the next day he took his seat on the tribunal and ordered Paul to be brought.

Acts recounts that on the way to Rome for his appeal as a Roman citizen to Caesar, Paul was shipwrecked on "Melita" Malta , [Acts —44] where the islanders showed him "unusual kindness" and where he was met by Publius.

He finally arrived in Rome around 60, where he spent another two years under house arrest. Irenaeus wrote in the 2nd century that Peter and Paul had been the founders of the church in Rome and had appointed Linus as succeeding bishop.

The date of Paul's death is believed to have occurred after the Great Fire of Rome in July 64, but before the last year of Nero's reign, in A legend later [ when?

According to this legend, after Paul was decapitated, his severed head rebounded three times, giving rise to a source of water each time that it touched the ground, which is how the place earned the name " San Paolo alle Tre Fontane " "St Paul at the Three Fountains".

According to further legend, Paul's body was buried outside the walls of Rome, at the second mile on the Via Ostiensis , on the estate owned by a Christian woman named Lucina.

It was here, in the fourth century, that the Emperor Constantine the Great built a first church. Caius in his Disputation Against Proclus AD mentions this of the places in which the remains of the apostles Peter and Paul were deposited: "I can point out the trophies of the apostles.

For if you are willing to go to the Vatican or to the Ostian Way, you will find the trophies of those who founded this Church".

In , an 8-foot 2. Vatican archaeologists declared this to be the tomb of Paul the Apostle in The sarcophagus was not opened but was examined by means of a probe, which revealed pieces of incense, purple and blue linen, and small bone fragments.

The bone was radiocarbon-dated to the 1st or 2nd century. According to the Vatican, these findings support the conclusion that the tomb is Paul's.

By reason of jealousy and strife Paul by his example pointed out the prize of patient endurance. After that he had been seven times in bonds, had been driven into exile, had been stoned, had preached in the East and in the West, he won the noble renown which was the reward of his faith, having taught righteousness unto the whole world and having reached the farthest bounds of the West; and when he had borne his testimony before the rulers, so he departed from the world and went unto the holy place, having been found a notable pattern of patient endurance.

Commenting on this passage, Raymond Brown writes that while it "does not explicitly say" that Paul was martyred in Rome, "such a martyrdom is the most reasonable interpretation".

According to one tradition, the church of San Paolo alle Tre Fontane marks the place of Paul's execution. A Roman Catholic liturgical solemnity of Peter and Paul , celebrated on June 29, commemorates his martyrdom , and reflects a tradition preserved by Eusebius that Peter and Paul were martyred at the same time.

Paul can still celebrate their patron on June The apocryphal Acts of Paul and the apocryphal Acts of Peter suggest that Paul survived Rome and traveled further west.

Some think that Paul could have revisited Greece and Asia Minor after his trip to Spain, and might then have been arrested in Troas, and taken to Rome and executed.

Bede , in his Ecclesiastical History , writes that Pope Vitalian in gave Paul's relics including a cross made from his prison chains from the crypts of Lucina to King Oswy of Northumbria , northern Britain.

Paul is considered the patron saint of London. The New Testament offers little if any information about the physical appearance of Paul, but several descriptions can be found in apocryphal texts.

In the Acts of Paul [] he is described as "A man of small stature, with a bald head and crooked legs, in a good state of body, with eyebrows meeting and nose somewhat hooked".

In The History of the Contending of Saint Paul his countenance is described as "ruddy with the ruddiness of the skin of the pomegranate". Lucian , in his Philopatris , describes Paul as "corpore erat parvo he was small , contracto contracted , incurvo crooked , tricubitali of three cubits , or four feet six ".

Nicephorus claims that Paul was a little man, crooked, and almost bent like a bow, with a pale countenance, long and wrinkled, and a bald head.

Pseudo-Chrysostom echoes Lucian's height of Paul, referring to him as "the man of three cubits". Catholicism portal. Of the 27 books in the New Testament, 14 have been attributed to Paul; 7 of these are widely considered authentic and Paul's own, while the authorship of the other 7 is disputed.

Theologian Mark Powell writes that Paul directed these 7 letters to specific occasions at particular churches.

As an example, if the Corinthian church had not experienced problems concerning its celebration of the Lord's Supper , [1 Cor. Powell asks if we might be ignorant of other matters simply because no crises arose that prompted Paul to comment on them.

In Paul's writings, he provides the first written account of what it is to be a Christian and thus a description of Christian spirituality.

His letters have been characterized as being the most influential books of the New Testament after the Gospels of Matthew and John. Seven of the 13 letters that bear Paul's name — Romans , 1 Corinthians , 2 Corinthians , Galatians , Philippians , 1 Thessalonians and Philemon — are almost universally accepted as being entirely authentic dictated by Paul himself.

Four of the letters Ephesians, 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus are widely considered pseudepigraphical , while the authorship of the other two is subject to debate.

According to their theories, these disputed letters may have come from followers writing in Paul's name, often using material from his surviving letters.

These scribes also may have had access to letters written by Paul that no longer survive. The authenticity of Colossians has been questioned on the grounds that it contains an otherwise unparalleled description among his writings of Jesus as "the image of the invisible God", a Christology found elsewhere only in John's gospel.

Internal evidence shows close connection with Philippians. Ephesians is a letter that is very similar to Colossians, but is almost entirely lacking in personal reminiscences.

Its style is unique. Finally, according to R. Brown , it exalts the Church in a way suggestive of a second generation of Christians, "built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets" now past.

The defenders of its Pauline authorship argue that it was intended to be read by a number of different churches and that it marks the final stage of the development of Paul's thinking.

It has been said, too, that the moral portion of the Epistle, consisting of the last two chapters, has the closest affinity with similar portions of other Epistles, while the whole admirably fits in with the known details of Paul's life, and throws considerable light upon them.

Although approximately half of Acts deals with Paul's life and works, the Book of Acts does not refer to Paul writing letters.

Historians believe that the author of Acts did not have access to any of Paul's letters. One piece of evidence suggesting this is that Acts never directly quotes from the Pauline epistles.

Discrepancies between the Pauline epistles and Acts would further support the conclusion that the author of Acts did not have access to those epistles when composing Acts.

British Jewish scholar Hyam Maccoby contended that the Paul as described in the book of Acts and the view of Paul gleaned from his own writings are very different people.

Some difficulties have been noted in the account of his life. Paul as described in the Book of Acts is much more interested in factual history, less in theology; ideas such as justification by faith are absent as are references to the Spirit, according to Maccoby.

He also pointed out that there are no references to John the Baptist in the Pauline Epistles , although Paul mentions him several times in the book of Acts.

Others have objected that the language of the speeches is too Lukan in style to reflect anyone else's words. Moreover, George Shillington writes that the author of Acts most likely created the speeches accordingly and they bear his literary and theological marks.

Baur — , professor of theology at Tübingen in Germany, the first scholar to critique Acts and the Pauline Epistles, and founder of the Tübingen School of theology, argued that Paul, as the "Apostle to the Gentiles", was in violent opposition to the original 12 Apostles.

Baur considers the Acts of the Apostles were late and unreliable. This debate has continued ever since, with Adolf Deissmann — and Richard Reitzenstein — emphasising Paul's Greek inheritance and Albert Schweitzer stressing his dependence on Judaism.

In the opening verses of Romans 1 , Paul provides a litany of his own apostolic appointment to preach among the Gentiles [Gal.

Paul also describes himself as inflicted with a debilitating physical condition akin to having a handicap which he refers to as "a thorn in the flesh".

There are debates as to whether Paul understood himself as commissioned to take the gospel to the gentiles at the moment of his conversion.

Paul's writings emphasized the crucifixion , Christ's resurrection and the Parousia or second coming of Christ. While being a biological descendant from David "according to the flesh" , [Rom.

According to E. Sanders , Paul "preached the death, resurrection, and lordship of Jesus Christ, and he proclaimed that faith in Jesus guarantees a share in his life.

Believers participate in Christ's death and resurrection by their baptism. The resurrection of Jesus was of primary importance to Paul, bringing the promise of salvation to believers.

Sanders concludes that Paul's writings reveal what he calls the essence of the Christian message: " 1 God sent his Son; 2 the Son was crucified and resurrected for the benefit of humanity; 3 the Son would soon return; and 4 those who belonged to the Son would live with him forever.

In Paul's writings, the public, corporate devotional patterns towards Jesus in the early Christian community are reflective of Paul's perspective on the divine status of Jesus in what scholars have termed a "binitarian" pattern of devotion.

For Paul, Jesus receives prayer 1 Cor. Paul taught that Christians are redeemed from sin by Jesus' death and resurrection.

His death was an expiation as well as a propitiation , and by Christ's blood peace is made between God and man. According to Krister Stendahl , the main concern of Paul's writings on Jesus' role, and salvation by faith, is not the individual conscience of human sinners, and their doubts about being chosen by God or not, but the problem of the inclusion of gentile Greek Torah observers into God's covenant.

Paul's conversion fundamentally changed his basic beliefs regarding God's covenant and the inclusion of Gentiles into this covenant.

Paul believed Jesus' death was a voluntary sacrifice, that reconciled sinners with God. Sanders , who initiated the New Perspective on Paul with his publication Paul and Palestinian Judaism , Paul saw the faithful redeemed by participation in Jesus' death and rising.

Though "Jesus' death substituted for that of others and thereby freed believers from sin and guilt," a metaphor derived from "ancient sacrificial theology," [7] [note 12] the essence of Paul's writing is not in the "legal terms" regarding the expiation of sin, but the act of "participation in Christ through dying and rising with him.

Some scholars see Paul or Saul as completely in line with 1st-century Judaism a Pharisee and student of Gamaliel as presented by Acts , [] others see him as opposed to 1st-century Judaism see Marcionism , while the majority see him as somewhere in between these two extremes, opposed to insistence on keeping the "Ritual Laws" for example the circumcision controversy in early Christianity as necessary for entrance into God's New Covenant, [] [] but in full agreement on " Divine Law ".

These views of Paul are paralleled by the views of Biblical law in Christianity. Tabor for the Huffington Post [].

Paul is critical both theologically and empirically of claims of moral or lineal superiority [Rom. He wrote that faith in Christ was alone decisive in salvation for Jews and Gentiles alike, making the schism between the followers of Christ and mainstream Jews inevitable and permanent.

He argued that Gentile converts did not need to become Jews , get circumcised, follow Jewish dietary restrictions, or otherwise observe Mosaic laws to be saved.

According to Sanders, Paul insists that salvation is received by the grace of God; according to Sanders, this insistence is in line with Judaism of c.

Observance of the Law is needed to maintain the covenant, but the covenant is not earned by observing the Law, but by the grace of God.

Sanders' publications [] [] have since been taken up by Professor James Dunn who coined the phrase "The New Perspective on Paul".

Wright , [] the Anglican Bishop of Durham, notes a difference in emphasis between Galatians and Romans, the latter being much more positive about the continuing covenant between God and his ancient people than the former.

Wright also contends that performing Christian works is not insignificant but rather proof of having attained the redemption of Jesus Christ by grace free gift received by faith.

According to Bart Ehrman , Paul believed that Jesus would return within his lifetime. Paul's teaching about the end of the world is expressed most clearly in his letters to the Christians at Thessalonica.

He assures them that the dead will rise first and be followed by those left alive. Before his conversion he believed God's messiah would put an end to the old age of evil, and initiate a new age of righteousness; after his conversion he believed this would happen in stages that had begun with the resurrection of Jesus, but the old age would continue until Jesus returns.

The second chapter of the first letter to Timothy—one of the six disputed letters—is used by many churches to deny women a vote in church affairs, reject women from serving as teachers of adult Bible classes, prevent them from serving as missionaries, and generally disenfranchise women from the duties and privileges of church leadership.

Fuller Seminary theologian J. Daniel Kirk [] finds evidence in Paul's letters of a much more inclusive view of women.

He writes that Romans 16 is a tremendously important witness to the important role of women in the early church. Paul praises Phoebe for her work as a deaconess and Junia who is described by Paul in Scripture as being respected among the Apostles.

He does not believe it to be a general prohibition on any woman speaking in worship settings since in 1 Corinthians Paul affirms the right responsibility of women to prophesy.

Biblical prophecy is more than "fore-telling": two-thirds of its inscripturated form involves "forth-telling", that is, setting the truth, justice, mercy, and righteousness of God against the backdrop of every form of denial of the same.

Thus, to speak prophetically was to speak boldly against every form of moral, ethical, political, economic, and religious disenfranchisement observed in a culture that was intent on building its own pyramid of values vis-a-vis God's established system of truth and ethics.

There were women prophets in the highly patriarchal times throughout the Old Testament. The prophetess Noadiah was among those who tried to intimidate Nehemiah.

Kirk's third example of a more inclusive view is Galatians :. There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.

In pronouncing an end within the church to the divisions which are common in the world around it, he concludes by highlighting the fact that "there were New Testament women who taught and had authority in the early churches, that this teaching and authority was sanctioned by Paul, and that Paul himself offers a theological paradigm within which overcoming the subjugation of women is an anticipated outcome".

Classicist Evelyn Stagg and theologian Frank Stagg believe that Paul was attempting to "Christianize" the societal household or domestic codes that significantly oppressed women and empowered men as the head of the household.

The Staggs present a serious study of what has been termed the New Testament domestic code , also known as the Haustafel.

Biblical scholars have typically treated the Haustafel in Ephesians as a resource in the debate over the role of women in ministry and in the home.

Most Christian traditions [] [] [] say Paul clearly portrays homosexuality as sinful in two specific locations: Romans —27 , and 1 Corinthians — Another passage addresses the topic more obliquely: 1 Timothy — Since the nineteenth century, however, most scholars have concluded that 1 Timothy along with 2 Timothy and Titus is not original to Paul, but rather an unknown Christian writing in Paul's name some time in the late-first-to-mid-2nd century.

Paul's influence on Christian thinking arguably has been more significant than any other New Testament author. In the East, church fathers attributed the element of election in Romans 9 to divine foreknowledge.

Paul had a strong influence on early Christianity. Hurtado notes that Paul regarded his own Christological views and those of his predecessors and that of the Jerusalem Church as essentially similar.

According to Hurtado, this "work[s] against the claims by some scholars that Pauline Christianity represents a sharp departure from the religiousness of Judean 'Jesus movements'.

Marcionism, regarded as heresy by contemporary mainstream Christianity, was an Early Christian dualist belief system that originated in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year Marcion believed Jesus was the savior sent by God , and Paul the Apostle was his chief apostle, but he rejected the Hebrew Bible and the God of Israel.

Marcionists believed that the wrathful Hebrew God was a separate and lower entity than the all-forgiving God of the New Testament.

In his account of his conversion experience, Augustine gave his life to Christ after reading Romans In his account of his conversion Martin Luther wrote about righteousness in Romans 1 praising Romans as the perfect gospel, in which the Reformation was birthed.

Diasporaa juudid valisid endile tihti Rooma või Kreeka nime, mis kõlas juudi nimega sarnaselt [26] , samuti on võimalik, et Paulusel oligi kaks nime: nii kreeka Paulus kui semiidi nimi Saulus [1].

Paulus sündis ca 5. Paulus ei maini kirjades oma sünni- ega kasvukohta, [1] [27] kuid Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi sündis ta Väike—Aasias Tarsoses [1] Ap ning kasvas ja õppis Jeruusalemmas rabi Gamaliel I käe all [28] [29].

Apostlite tegude raamatu versiooni tõesuses on põhjust kahelda [6]. Väljaspool Palestiinat polnud eriti varisere, mistõttu võib oletada, et kui üldse, siis läks Paulus Helmut Koester pakub Pauluse päritoluks ka Damaskust, mille lähedal Paulus Jumala kutse aegu viibis ning kuhu ta pärast kutset mitmeks aastaks jäi, põhjendades oletust muuhulgas sellega, et Paulusele omane apokalüptilisus ei sobituvat Tarsose kreekalikku miljöösse [30].

Samas kirjutab Brown, et on usutav, et Paulus oli pärit Tarsosest, sest seal asus märkimisväärne juudi koloonia , sealne hariduselu oli tasemel [6] ning Paulus läks oma esimestel kristluseaastatel Sitsiiliasse [1].

Paulusel oli hea kreeka keele oskus, tema kirjutistes on näha hellenistliku retoorika ja filosoofia mõju [6].

Võimalik, et Paulus sai helleniseerunud judaistliku alghariduse [24] , tõenäoliselt sisaldas õpe tutvumist stoikude , küünikute ja epikuurlastega [6] — sellele viitab argumendi stiil ja tema eetilised õpetused [24].

Oskustöölisena kuulus Paulus madalasse sotsiaalsesse klassi , olles ometi vaba kodanik [6]. Juudi diasporaas kasvamine tegi ta teadlikuks paganate elukorraldusest, religioonist ja kommetest, [6] mistõttu kujutas ta kirjades metafooride ja analoogiatega hellenistlikku maailma [24].

Paulus kirjutas oma kirjad koinee kreeka keeles ning tsiteeris kreekakeelset pühakirja Septuagintat [6] , mitte Heebrea piiblit , ning tema kirjad on kreeka kirja formaadis [24].

Samas pole teada, kas tsitaadid on Septuagintast seetõttu, et Paulus kõneles vaid kreeka keelt, või oskas ta ka heebrea keelt , ent valis kreekakeelse Seaduse oma auditooriumi järgi [31].

Hagneri järgi oli tema emakeeleks aramea keel [24] , kuid Bart D. Ehrman möönab, et Pauluse kirjad ei viita, nagu oleks ta aramea keelt rääkida osanud [23].

Paulus kirjeldas end heebrealase ja variserina , kes oli enne Jumala kutset innukas traditsioonide järgija [7]. Vanemad piibliuuringud pidasid Paulust paganaks, kuid tänapäeval usutakse, et ta oli juut [32].

Ta tsiteeris raskusteta Heebrea piiblit koinee kreeka keeles ning tõlgendas pühakirja vastavalt juudi õpetusele [5] , olles selle sügavalt läbi mõtestanud [31] , samuti argumenteeris ta tihti juudi formaadis [5].

Pauluse kirjad maalivad pildi noorest pühendunud ja intelligentsest juudi noormehest, kes pühendus oma religiooni mõistmisele ja järgimisele [31].

Ta kirjutab, et enne Jumala kutset kiusas ta kristlasi ja kirikut taga ning üritas neid hävitada [7]. On võimalik, et põhjuseks oli tema religioosne innukus [7] , kuid on ka tõenäoline, et ta tegutses kristlaste vastu, kui nägi neid levitamas sõnumit, mis läks variseride pühakirjainterpretatsiooni või Seadusega vastuollu [33] — võimalik, et karistatavad kristlased olid kristlusse pöördunud juudid, kes sünagoogides avalikku propagandat tegid [34].

Ilmselt oli kristlaste tagakiusamine osa tavapärasest sünagoogide karistuspraktikast, mis seisnes muuhulgas religioossest kogukonnast väljaheitmises [34].

Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi sai Paulus Jeruusalemmast loa kristlasi kiusata ning tegutses Jeruusalemmas Ap , kuid Pauluse galaatlaste kirja Gl järgi poldud teda Judeas nähtud enne, kui ta kristlaseks hakkas [35].

Tõenäolisemalt kiusas ta kristlasi taga oma kodukandis, sest tal poleks olnud võimu, et neid väljastpoolt Palestiinat Jeruusalemma karistamisele viia [29].

Apostlite tegude raamatus nimetatakse Jeesuse ilmumist Paulusele Pauluse pöördumiseks, kuid Paulus ise nimetab seda kutseks [36].

Nii Apostlite tegude raamatu kui Pauluse kirjade järgi pöördus Paulus noore mehena teel Damaskusesse Ap [35] , hinnanguliselt ajavahemikus 30—36 m.

Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi suundus Paulus sinna juudi-kristlasi taga kiusama [5] , kuid tõenäolisemalt oli tal Damaskuses residents [36].

Apostlite tegude raamatus kirjeldatakse Sauluse pöördumist kolmel korral [38] Ap ; ; Detailid varieeruvad, kuid kõigi versioonide mõte jääb samaks, Jeesus küsib Sauluselt: "Saul, Saul, miks sa mind taga kiusad?

On võimalik, et Apostlite tegude raamatu autor teadis erinevaid versioone samast loost ning kasutas neid kõiki või teadis ühte varianti ning muutis seda vastavalt kontekstile [39].

Paulus ütleb esimeses kirjas korintlastele, et nägi Jeesust, teised allikad seda ei ütle [33] , seejuures väidab ta, et oli viimane, kes Jeesust nägi 1Kr Ka kirjas galaatlastele mainib Paulus, et Jumal ilmutas talle oma Poja Gl Pauluse versioone pöördumisest tuleb käsitleda kriitiliselt, sest ta reflekteerib pöördumist hilisemate kogemuste valguses [40].

Ilmutus oli esmaseks tõukeks Pauluse kristoloogiale , ta koges Damaskuse teel andestust, lepitust ja uuenemist. Valgustusaja naturalistid oletasid, et Paulus tundis süütunnet ja kahtles, mistõttu oli ta pöördumiseks sobivas psühholoogilises seisundis.

Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi on võimalik Pauluse misjonitööd kaardistada, kuid see pole ajalooliselt täpne ega usaldusväärne, Pauluse kirjad on usaldusväärsemad [41].

Apostlite tegude raamat jagab Pauluse misjonireisid kolmeks, ilmselt ei teinud Paulus ise sellist jaotust [42]. Pauluse kirjas galaatlastele jutustab Paulus, et suundus pärast pöördmist esmalt Araabiasse Gl Pole teada, miks ta sinna läks või mida ta seal tegi, kuid arvatakse, et Paulus tegeles juba Araabias olles misjonitööga [43].

Hiljem läks ta tagasi Damaskusesse ning kolme aasta pärast läks Paulus 15 päevaks Peetruse juurde, nähes teistest apostlitest vaid Jeesuse venda Jaakobust Gl Seejärel läks Paulus edasi Süüriasse ja Kiliikiasse Gl Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi hakkas Paulus pea kohe pärast pöördumist Damaskuses misjonitööd tegema, kuniks ta juutide viha tõttu põgenes ning pöördus Tarsosesse [43].

Pauluse vahepealsetest tegudest ei räägita, alles umbes kümme aastat hiljem läks Barnabas Paulust otsima, et teda endaga Antiookiasse kaasa võtta [44] ning nad õpetasid seal umbes aasta, misjärel suundusid Judeasse, et sinna Antiookia koguduste almused viia [43].

Judeast pöördusid nad tagasi Antiookiasse ning võtsid Johannes Markuse enestega ühes [43]. Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi sai Antiookia kirik Pühalt Vaimult juhised, et Saulus ja Barnabas peavad kuulutama Ap umbes aastal 47 , misjärel alustasid nad umbes aastapikkust misjonireisi, [43] mille vältel reisiti koos Johannes Markusega Antiookiast Sitsiiliasse, sealt edasi Väike-Aasia linnadesse.

Ka Pauluse teises kirjas korintlastele mainib Paulus, et teda visati Lüstras kividega [42] 2Kor Lõpuks külastati juba läbi käidud kohti uuesti, et uusi inimesi pöörata ning teekond lõppes Antiookias, millest oli saanud Pauluse kodukirik [43].

Pauluse kirjades ei meenutata seda misjonireisi, ainukeseks viiteks on Pauluse meenutus, et ta levitas paganate seas kristlust ka enne apostlite konsiili Jeruusalemmas Gl [42].

Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi lepiti Paulusele järele andes kokku, et ümberlõikamine pole kohustuslik. Samas tekkis küsimus: kui juba ümber lõikama ei pea, siis kas ka teisi juudi kombeid ei pea järgima?

Umbes Barnabase ja Pauluse vahel tekkis tüli, kas võtta Johannes Markust kaasa või mitte, ning Barnabase asemel ühines Paulusega Siilas.

Apostlite tegude raamatu järgi külastati Süüria ja Sitsiilia kirikuid, mis olid pöördunud tõenäoliselt kümneaastasel perioodil, mille kohta Apostlite tegude raamatus info puudub.

Taaskülastati esimesel reisil pöördunud Väike-Aasia kirikuid muuhulgas Derbet ja Lüstrat. Seejärel käidi Früügias ja Galaatias , misjärel sai Paulus jumaliku juhatuse minna Makedooniasse ning mehed läksid üle Troase Kreekasse ja Filipisse , kus Paulus vangistati.

Pärast vabanemist jätkati Amphipolises , Apolloonias ja Tessaloonikas , kus neid ootas juutide vastasseis. Ka Beroasesse tulid Tessaloonika juudid, mistõttu seltskond liikus Ateenasse , kus kuulutati Areopaguses.

Hiljem liiguti Korintosele , kus liitusid Siilas ja Timoteus. Korintosel tutvus Paulus ka Akvila ja Priskillaga , kelle juurde jäi ta pooleteiseks aastaks.

Lõpuks pidi Paulus vastasseisu tõttu lahkuma ning jõudis merd mööda Süüriasse, peatudes vahepeal Efesosel , kuhu jäid ka Priskilla ja Akvila.

Paulus käis veel Kaisareas ning lõpetas oma reisi taas Antiookias. Apostlite tegude raamatu kolmandat misjonireisi alustas Paulus varempöördunud paikade taaskülastamisega: ta käis Galaatias ja Früügias, viibis üle kahe aasta [47] või aastatel [48] Efesosel [47] , misjärel tekkis tüli, mille kohta pole eriti teada, aga Paulus mainib ühes kirjadest raskusi Aasias [49].

Oletatakse, et Paulus võis Efesosel vangis viibida, ehkki Apostlite tegude raamat seda ei maini, ning ta võis sealoleku ajal kirjutada kirja filiplastele , Fileemonile , galaatlastele ja võimalik, et ka esimese kirja korintlastele [49].

Seejärel reisis ta Makedooniasse , võib-olla Illüüriani [47]. Arvatakse, et sellel ajal kirjutas Paulus ka teise kirja korintlastele [49] [50].

Paulus Apostel

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